This biennial or short-lived perennial is easily grown in average, moist, well-drained soils in full sun. Tolerates light shade, but plants may need support if grown in too much shade. Best in moist, rich soils. Tolerates heat, some drought and a somewhat wide range of soils. May be grown from seed started indoors in early spring or sown directly in the garden after last frost date. Set out seedlings or purchased plants at last spring frost date. Deadhead spent flowers to encourage additional bloom and/or to prevent any unwanted self-seeding. Whether or not plants survive from one year to the next, they freely self-seed and will usually remain in the garden and naturalize through self-seeding.
Fall plant, or put in a sealed, labeled plastic bag in the refrigerator for at least 30 days before planting. Cover the seeds with approximately 1/4 inch of soil and water gently to ensure a firm contact with the soil. Keep moist but not waterlogged until the seeds germinate, between seven and 30 days.
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